Carol’s Movies 7/31/13

Carol Says:
Ghost Town
Well, here is the thing:  I have not seen a new movie in the past few weeks.  So, I am going to go back in time and talk a little about a movie we saw a few years ago:  Ghost Town.  One of the reasons I know we liked this movie is because we saw it a few times.  Ricky Gervais plays a serious (well, somewhat serious) roll of a dentist.  He meets Tia Leone and falls in love with her – only after meeting her deceased husband, Greg Kinnear (no relations ship to Kenny Kinnear, that I know of).  I thought it was a delightful movie.
As I recall, they lived in the same building as each other, and then Greg dies.  And Ricky is to give a message to Tia.  Or, maybe not.  I just cannot remember it all.  Except I know it was delightful and that you should watch this movie.  It only got a few stars, but, what do they know.

Netflix Says:

Ghost Town

2008PG-13102 minutesBritish funnyman Ricky Gervais (“The Office,” “Extras”) stars in his first feature film lead as Bertram Pincus, a hapless gent who’s pronounced dead, only to be brought back to life with an unexpected gift: a newfound ability to see ghosts. When Bertram crosses paths with the recently departed Frank Herlihy (Greg Kinnear), he gets pulled into Frank’s desperate bid to break up his widowed wife’s (Téa Leoni) pending marriage to another man.

Cast:
Ricky GervaisTéa LeoniGreg KinnearKristen WiigAlan RuckBilly CampbellDanai Jekesai GuriraAasif MandviUzimannDennis Albanese,Megan Byrne
Director:
David Koepp
 

Carrie’s Corner 7/31/13

Carrie’s Corner
By: Carrie A. Blakley
While I am one of those technology-loving people, I am also equally cautious when a new health product shows up on the market, especially if that health product seems ‘too good to be true’. Technology has brought us so many wonderful things into our lives, and the rate of technological advancement is astounding these days. However, no matter the amount of technology we see, there are a few things that we just can’t seem to get a grasp on yet. For example, the ‘common cold’. Every single doctor, and nurse, on the face of this planet will tell you, there is no ‘cure’ for the common cold. People who are not in the medical industry will scratch their heads and think: “We have the ability to put more computer power into a cell phone, than it took us to get to the moon….but we can’t handle the common cold?” Yes. That is true. Then again, to rationalize that thought, we only had to send one rocket to the moon, not 99 of them.
Summer colds can be most bothersome, mostly because it’s difficult to wrap our minds around how we got the cold. It’s hot. It’s humid. There’s little, to no, breeze in the air, and what breeze is in the air is akin to sticking your head into an oven that’s been heated to 450 degrees. How do we get the cold, if we’re not cold? That’s where the biggest misconception comes in. I read an article one time from the CDC (Center for Disease Control), where one doctor blatantly stated: “You could run naked in the sub-zero areas of Alaska, and not catch a cold”. He was referring to the fact that you do not have to feel cold, in order to catch a cold. Then, there are people that will say “Summer colds are the worst”. Which, can be true for many people.
Many people are fighting the heat in the Summer. They are also more active in the Summer, and therefore, their bodies are working twice as hard to keep healthy. When a cold virus strikes, that is basically putting your body’s immune system into warp drive, and more often than not, it can’t handle it. So, you have a cold virus in you, that’s having its own little party, and it will do so until it is darn well ready to leave your system. Nevermind the cold cures. They don’t cure the cold, they simply stifle the symptoms. If you can, try and prevent getting a cold. Cover your mouth when you cough, or sneeze. Make sure that your nasal passages are as clear as possible from any phlegm, and keep your body as ‘on track’ as possible by eating properly, and drinking plenty of fluids (avoid alcohol and caffeine) to keep your body hydrated. Let’s face it, you should be the one having the party….not a cold virus.

Health Advisory from NSAQMD 7/31/13

AIR QUALITY HEALTH ADVISORY  SMOKE
Smoke Advisory for Nevada, Plumas and Sierra Counties

The Northern Sierra Air Quality Management District is issuing an air quality health advisory to notify the public of the potential for poor air quality conditions in Plumas, Sierra and Nevada Counties due to smoke from multiple fires in Oregon and the Aspen Fire near Fresno. The Oregon fires are especially heavy smoke producers, and in a somewhat unusual pattern the smoke has been traveling offshore, then south over the ocean and back inland in the San Francisco Bay Area. Additionally, smoke from the Aspen Fire has been drifting north along the foothills at a different elevation. This pattern is likely to continue through Tuesday and possibly beyond. Smoke concentrations are expected to intermittently be in the Unhealthy for Sensitive Groups range throughout the region, and are expected to vary during the course of each day depending on wind speed, wind direction and other smoke dispersion factors. Smoke may settle in low-lying areas overnight and is likely to be spread across the northern Sierras throughout the daytime hours.

If you smell smoke, or see smoke around you, consider restricting your outside activities. Until the potential for poor air quality subsides, individuals should consider taking the following actions:
– Healthy people should delay strenuous exercise, particularly when they can smell smoke.
– Children and elderly people should consider avoiding outdoor activities, particularly prolonged outdoor exertion.
– People with respiratory illnesses should remain indoors when smoke can be seen or smelled outside. Asthmatics should follow their asthma management plan.
– Contact your doctor if you have symptoms such as chest pain, chest tightness, shortness of breath, or severe fatigue. This is important for not only people with chronic lung or heart disease, but also for individuals who have not been previously diagnosed with such illnesses. Smoke can unmask or produce symptoms of such diseases.
– Keep airways moist by drinking lots of water. Breathing through a warm, wet washcloth can also help relieve dryness.

In general, when smoke concentrations are elevated it is advisable to stay indoors with windows and doors closed and set air-conditioners on re-circulate. Do not run swamp coolers or whole house fans.

Disposable particulate respirators found at hardware stores can be effective at reducing exposure to smoke particles as long as they seal closely to the wearer’s face. Look for respirators that have two straps and have the words NIOSH and either P100 or N95  printed on the filter material. Warning: particulate respirators will not provide complete protection in very smoky conditions and may even interfere with proper breathing. It should also be noted that there is some controversy surrounding the use of particulate respirators because of the many variables that may hinder their proper use.

When feasible, pets should be brought indoors when outdoor air quality is poor.

Studies have linked fine particulate matter (smoke) with significant health problems, including work and school absences, respiratory related hospital admissions, aggravated asthma, acute respiratory symptoms (including severe chest pain, gasping, and aggravated coughing), chronic bronchitis, decreased lung function, and premature death.

A good internet site for current local fire information is www.yubanet.com.

Sheriff’s Public Log 7/22/13 to 7/28/13

7/31/13

SO BadgeSierra County Sheriff’s Office Public Logs

7/22/13

  • A report of loud music at 3 a.m. in Loyalton
  • Keys left in the Downieville PO are now at the Sheriff’s Office
  • Court commitment person booked in Downieville
  • Missing yellow Lab in Sattley

7/23/13

  • Court commitment in Downieville
  • and another court commitment in Downieville
  • Several bags of trash dumped on Spring St in Sierra City
  • Truckee caller reports losing wallet in Downieville Grocery
  • Possible fire reported in Loyalton
  • Welfare check request on EPHC patient
  • Court Commitment in Downieville
  • Request to notify camper to return home for medical emergency
  • Eggs being thrown at cars in Loyalton
  • Obscene phone call in Loyalton

7/24/13

  • Burglar alarm going off in Sierra City
  • 90 yr old male with stomach pain in Loyalton
  • Theft reported in Loyalton
  • Family fight in Sierra City
  • Report of driver in wrong lane several times between Sierra City and DVL
  • A bear was reported to have been in Loyalton on the 20th of July
  • Cell phone found near the Falls in Downieville now at Sheriff’s Office
  • Juvenile female fell off a horse in Sierraville needs ambulance
  • Civil dispute file in Sierra City
  • Harassing phone calls from Loyalton
  • Loud person playing music in the Sierra City street
  • Clark Station static calls 9-1-1

7/25/13

  • Alarm sounding in Sierra City
  • Smoke reported in canyon near Loyalton
  • House burglarized in Loyalton while resident was camping
  • Civil dispute filed in Camptonville
  • And again, same place
  • Juvenile caller needs assistance in Downieville
  • Marijuana grow noticed by Deputy in Sierra City
  • Reading glasses found in Downieville at the river now at the SO
  • Overdue mountain biker reported in Downieville
  • Yelling and fighting in the Loyalton street
  • Possible suicidal subject reported

7/26/13

  • Female in Sierraville needs ride as boyfriend’s vehicle not compatible
  • Several vehicles in Sierra City parking in unauthorized areas
  • Men in van taking pictures and walking in yard in Loyalton
  • Welfare check needed on overdue truck driver in Sierraville
  • Flames seen west of Bordertown

7/27/13

  • Single vehicle accident on Gold Lake Rd near Sierra City
  • Bug station reports failed inspection near Jackson Meadows
  • Caller reports girlfriend left residence in his vehicle while intoxicated
  • A rowdy patron reported in bar in Downieville
  • Four skateboarding youth making noise in Downieville
  • CHP reports damage to county property in Loyalton

7/28/13

  •  Loyalton dog injures neighbor’s pet rabbit, civil standby needed for discussion
  • Courthouse fire alarm is a false alarm
  • 9-1-1 static call in Loyalton
  • Vehicle driving in erratic manner near Goodyears Bar

 

 

Brag About Ice Cream 7/24/13

Downieville–Naomi Parlor #36 is planning their annual Ice Cream Social for Saturday, August 24th, from Noon until 2 p.m and we need Ice Cream Makers. Think of it, an opportunity to enter your favorite homemade ice cream in the fierce competition for the Blue Ribbon and bragging rights for a WHOLE YEAR about how you took first place.
Don’t delay, reserve your spot today and help us keep this tradition going.  For details on how to participate with your favorite homemade ice cream please contact Earlene Folsom at 530-289-3530 or Sarah Folsom at 415-868-2327

Downieville Lions Installation 7/24/13

7/24/13 Two new members were installed at the July 22 Downieville Lion’s Club. Downieville residents Linda Guffin, sponsored by Julie Noll and Liz Fisher and Frank Sanchez sponsored by Lee Adams and Karen Galan were inducted as official Lion’s Club Members by Past President Mike Galan. President Mary Ervin welcomed Lion Linda and Lion Frank to the club and the immediately began receiving assignments. The Downieville Lions Club is a community service oriented club and supports eye care, the Western Sierra Food Bank, Downieville School Scholarships, the Miss Jody Community Thanksgiving Dinner, The Christmas Tree Tag program,  and many other projects throughout the county in addition to the City of Hope and the International Lions Association.

This year the Downieville Lion’s Club will be producing the 2014 Community Birthday Calendar, it’s 44th year of this project. To have you and your families birthdays, anniversaries, memorials or events on the calendar please contact Liz at 289-3632  or Mary at 862-1173.

Lion Frank Sanchez, Lion Linda Guffin and Lion Mike Galan at induction ceremony

Lion Frank Sanchez, Lion Linda Guffin and Lion Mike Galan at induction ceremony

From the Bench 7/24/13

7/24/13

Downieville's Colton White, age 5 (will be 5 on Aug 5) enjoyed fishing at Packer Lake's Fishing Day Saturday, July 20. Colton was the winner of a Cabela's fishing pole. 111 kids fished, made t-shirts, and enjoyed other activities.

7/24/13 Downieville’s Colton White, age 5 (will be 5 on Aug 5) enjoyed fishing at Packer Lake’s Fishing Day Saturday, July 20. Colton was the winner of a Cabela’s fishing pole. 111 kids fished, made t-shirts, and enjoyed other activities.

From the Bench people (David and Carol) were on their way to Loyalton on 7/19/2019 and found this pelican in the middle of Hwy 49 at Loganville.  All drivers stopped to give the pelican the right of way.  Unfortunately, the pelican had been injured (looked like a broken wing).  The Sheriff's office was called to help out the pelican.

From the Bench people (David and Carol) were on their way to Loyalton on 7/19/2019 and found this pelican in the middle of Hwy 49 at Loganville. All drivers stopped to give the pelican the right of way. Unfortunately, the pelican had been injured (looked like a broken wing). The Sheriff’s office was called to help out the pelican.

Later that day, we spotted a Heron on the Downie River in Downieville.

Later that day, the Marshalls spotted a Heron on the Downie River in Downieville.

 

Wednesday July 24, 2013

7/24/13 As I read The Fringe this week, I wondered exactly how far back in time would he want “traditional life” of Sierra County residents to go. If he wants to preserve what we have always had I wondered what the cutoff date was for changes or improvements.  I personally would say everything started going downhill when the “Walk / Don’t Walk” signs were installed at busy intersections. (Don’t worry they haven’t arrived in Sierra County). That may have been the point when we stopped thinking and taking responsibility for ourselves.

It might have been World War II when Americans returned from the war, everyone could get a car and much of the community cohesiveness began to wane, families who have lived in the same town, same farm, same home for generations were scattered across the country.  Maybe the internal combustion machine invention was the tipping point. I don’t know and everyone has different ideas of what the perfect life might be. I do know that in a world with bicycles, motorcycles, snowmobiles and a zillion different activities that burn fossil fuel, pollute the air and make a lot of noise it is nice to have a few “quiet recreation” areas, and that’s it, there are only a few, so I hope we can keep those. There are many lakes with no restrictions and only a few that have some. Also, speaking as a Sierra County resident there are many others, like me, who rely on the Board of Supervisors to protect our interests, and I feel that they are doing a good job.

So read the Fringe, Gabby, Cooter, Carol’s Movies and Books, Carries Corner and our guest columnists who have interesting things to say about all the issues we have been following the past few weeks. Mazel Tov to Prince William and Duchess Kate for the birth of their son, Prince George Alexander Louis.

The photo this week is an interesting shot on Sardine Lake by Jim Yeoman.

Independent Fringe 7/24/13

Independence Lake

A Fringe Editorialfringe logo

The Friends of Independence Lake, (FOIL), were before the Sierra County Board of Supervisors again with stronger evidence that, at one time, the county acknowledged a road that ran right to the lake, right to the campground.

The problem, as most local folks know by now, is the Nature Conservancy, which used public and non-profit dollars to purchase the land around the lake and “save” it.  TNC has “non-profit” status even though it is a multi-billion dollar international corporation.  The term “non-profit” means the organization claims to operate for the “good” of someone.  Some non-profits benefit members; TNC claims to serve a larger “good”.
Much of the cash used to purchase the land around Independence Lake was public money, meaning TNC ownership of the land is intended to benefit society.  Instead, the Nature Conservancy is benefiting its wealthy urban supporters at the cost of local traditional users, offering free “kayaks” and attempting to keep historic uses like trolling from the lake.

TNC doesn’t own the lake; it doesn’t own the water, which belongs to Truckee Meadows users; it doesn’t own the fish or the land beneath the lake, which belong to the People of California.  It owns the land around the lake.  Traditional users contribute to the management of the fish through licenses and boat registration and have a right to fish the lake.  Yet, TNC is using the rationalization that it, and not the State of California and the department of wildlife, is somehow responsible for the lake, and can keep traditional users off.

The Nature Conservancy claims the lake is “pristine”.  Ironically, it is the traditional users who have kept the lake “pristine”, but TNC tries the claim that the handful of traditional users now somehow endanger the lake, while the thousands of new urban “paddle sports” enthusiasts it has encouraged to the lake are imagined not to.

The danger to the lake, is, of course, introduction of aquatic invasive species, a host of damaging organisms which threaten the lake, and which are likely inevitable.  In the name of preventing this problem TNC proposes to prohibit motorboats, though any surface which stays moist will transport the AIS, surfaces such as the interior of molded boats and hollow paddles.  TNC claims they are “saving” the lake, which they do not own, from the traditional users who kept it “pristine”.  In short, some feel TNC is simply trying to keep traditional and historic users from the lake so their urban supporters get the “pristine” effect they have paid for.

The Friends of Independence Lake have exhausted every appeal to authority on the issue.  They have tried unsuccessfully to lobby TNC decision makers, have appealed to state entities who technically support public access to the lake but won’t intercede, and finally to the Sierra County Board of Supervisors.

The primary issue is of access.  TNC can’t actually prevent motorboat users from using the lake, which they don’t own and which state law allows.  Instead the corporation is simply preventing traditional users from accessing the lake.  In the past, the relationship between the owners of Independence Lake and the public, represented by the County, was good.  The county built and maintained roads so the public could enjoy the lake, and the various private owners of the land around the lake worked with the public to preserve access.

Now, the Nature Corporation has closed those roads to the public. It has closed an access campground to users, reserving it for TNC staff and privileged friends.  FOIL maintains that the county owned road goes to the lake, and TNC must allow access.

The group has taken heat from some for asking tiny Sierra County to take on the blind gargantuan TNC.  The county is poor, some claim, and we have no hope against TNC.  Some have complained that the group is asking the county to waste money it badly needs elsewhere.  Further, if forced to acknowledge traditional public use of the roads in question, some county officials have threatened to simply abandon the roads, essentially giving them to the corporation.

But, who else should the group appeal to if not the Board of Supervisors?  If one of us were to try to curtail the use of a lake, would the county step in?  Indeed, if one of us wanted to add a deck to a house we own, on land we own not in the public good but for private use, wouldn’t the county show its muscle?  The county sends cops to arrest us, social workers to take our children, makes rules about all facets of our lives.  Now, we need help against a powerful entity, should the Board of Supervisors claim to be powerless or disinterested?  TNC doesn’t want hillbillies on the lake, should the county step forward in defense of those over whom it exercises power, whom it claims to represent?  Or, should it suddenly claim no interest over the land of the county, or her people?

We in Sierra County are few and generally poor.  If we represented a hundred thousand more people, and millions more in wealth, we would be eligible for cooperation from the Nature Conservancy.  We suffer laws made by and for people in the over-populated south which fit us poorly and burden our people; they grab our water, force mandates on our tiny county, try to keep us from living on our land in the traditional ways.  They dictate our land use, determine when and where and how we can build a shelter.  Even the water in the lake is owned by the wealthy in the populated portion of Washoe County, Nevada.  We are few and generally poor; they are multitudes and have the money to wag the dog.

Even so, at some point, shouldn’t we try to make a stand for our traditional ways, at least make a statement for our people and our vanishing way of life?  FOIL has demonstrated beyond a preponderance of evidence that the county does own and control those access roads.  The records indicate it; the county has the roads on its tally; the GIS data is conclusive.  In response, the County has Tim Beals review old records and check his hoary memory to decide that the ownership of the roads can’t be decided.  Markers have been moved; nothing can be determined, and even though the county has been paid to maintain those road miles, it can’t be said for certain if the roads are the same roads that it owns.

The Board of Supervisors need to step forward as more than just the local representatives of the state to tax, regulate, and punish us.  The Board needs to make a statement first to TNC and then publically, that, whether or not the markers have been moved and Tim Beals’ memory degraded, it has always been understood that the County and the land owner cooperate to give the public access to the lake.  They must open the campground to real families in station wagons, the way it used to be.  They must give watercraft access to the lake.  Certainly, inspect and sanitize all watercraft against aquatic invasive species; some FOIL members are qualified to inspect water craft, perhaps they would volunteer.  Institute an in-basin boat policy to protect the lake.  But, access to traditional users must be restored.

As for TNC, one has to wonder if a similar treatment is given to the indigenous and traditional people where ever they “save” land.  Somewhere, someone in a position of power at TNC decided to “pristinize” Independence Lake.  “Pristine” means no traditional users, in favor of some idealized, urbanized view of what is appropriate for a rural alpine lake.  I’d encourage TNC to return Independence Lake to the stewards who cared for it so well for so long, and find a lake down south, closer to the people who pay the corporations wages, to “pristinize”.   There are many lakes there that actually need the help a billion dollar organization could provide.  It would be more convenient to the urban population, and would be very green indeed, since it would discourage the long drive northward, and the pollution that traffic causes in our delicate mountain ecologies. Simply not advertising the lake to urban users would go a long way to reducing the opportunity for AIS introduction.

Good luck, fishers of trout!

Gabby Fringette 7/24/13

Fighting with Food

By Gabby Fringette

As I ate the last of three pieces of pizza, I could hear my arteries cursing at me (is there a pill for cursing arteries?) Then after a stomach ache which resulted in a mountain-shaking session in the “library”, it occurred to me I need to eat veggies.

Problem: I do not like veggies. We don’t cook them much, the last veggies we got stayed in the fridge so long they started screaming when we took them out; I couldn’t bring myself to throw them in boiling water.  We had celery grubs; the celery made the grubs taste funny.

I know veggies are important and they sustain life, whole species live off of veggies.  Then I eat those species. I put catsup on them, and that’s my veggie.

Some people eat nothing but veggies too. They don’t seem to see the importance of a well-rounded diet.  We have sharp teeth in our mouths for the ripping of flesh. Why would we have them if we ate nothing but squash?

I love veggies, that’s why I don’t eat them. People who hate veggies are the ones who are vegetarians.

Now, fruit is different, it’s tasty, even actual non flavoring fruit.  Fruit is good for you; it keeps your bowels moving, and gives you nutrients. Of course, you have to eat other things; otherwise you’ll end up putting a TV on the wall in front of your toilet so you don’t fall asleep.

I would say ‘good bye and don’t forget to eat your veggies, kids’ but I hate hypocrites.

Good bye

Heidi Speaks for Students

Students need our support!

Each summer, college students head back to their parents’ homes, take low-paying or unpaid jobs and internships, and plan their next year at school. But tens of thousands of students might be forced to tell their friends that they won’t be coming back to class in the fall because of gridlock and partisanship in Washington.

Congress just let Stafford student loan interest ratesdouble because, on yet another critical issue, Members couldn’t come together. Providing access to affordable college education is one of the best ways to strengthen and preserve the Middle Class, but Tea Party extremists in Congress seem determined to take that opportunity away from working families.

We Californians know better than most that college isn’t cheap. Even with in-state tuition, the UC system can cost students over $30,000 a year. This real hardship is made harder by high loan rates and Congressional inaction.

Americans are already saddled with over $1 trillion in student loan debt. Bills like the Student Loan Relief Act provide hope that college will remain within reach for kids from working families. But now, thanks to ideologues in the House, these bills are effectively dead, and our students and working families are forced to bear an even greater burden.

We can do better for our kids. Join me in fighting for working families by making a contribution today.I’m proud to stand with students in this debate, and I hope you’ll join me in working to make education more accessible and more affordable for American families.

 

 

Global Women 7/24/13

A Call to the New Ambassador-At-Large for Global Women’s Issues

By Laura Finley

Laura Finley

Laura Finley

Early in his first term, President Obama appointed Melanne Verveer as the first Ambassador-At-Large for Global Women’s Issues.  Now, a new appointee will take the lead on the State Department’s global women’s initiatives. It is my hope that Cathy Russell uses her new position to address the continuing problems faced by women seeking legal protection from abusive partners.  To date, much of the focus on women’s issues has been external to the U.S. While this is very important, we need to clean up our own backyard as well.

 Major changes were recommended in August 2011 by the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights in the way that the courts provide for, and police enforce, restraining orders. The IACHR heard the case of Jessica Gonzales (now Lenahan), whose three young daughters, ages seven, nine, and ten, were killedwhen her former husband, Simon Gonzales, violated a permanent restraining order, kidnapped the girls, and brought them into a shoot-out with the Castle Rock, Colorado police on June 22, 1999.

The night that Simon Gonzales took the three girls, Jessica contacted the Castle Rock police multiple times by phone and in person to report his violation of the restraining order and to describe her fear for her daughters’ safety. The police refused to respond, and the result was three dead little girls. Jessica filed suit, and eventually the U.S. Supreme Court heard the case. In a shocking decision, the court announced in 2005 that the Castle Rock police had no duty to enforce the restraining order.

Jessica and her team of attorneys received some vindication through the IACHR’s decision, which noted that domestic violence is a global human rights issue and recommended a thorough investigation into this specific case, more training for police, and more.

Having worked with survivors of abuse for seven years, I continue to see women denied restraining orders for themselves and their children, even when they are in clear danger. I have witnessed police repeatedly fail to arrest abusers for violating restraining orders by threatening their victims through calls, emails, text messages and other means.  More than 1,000 people are killed each year—at least three per day—by abusive partners.

President Obama has perhaps done more about this issue than any other president.  The Department of Justice has recently announced new funding for 12 communities that are engaging in data-informed efforts to prevent domestic violence homicides. Obama himself, and in particular, Vice President Joe Biden, are vocal advocates of the Violence Against Women Act (VAWA), which was re-authorized by Congress in spring 2013.

More is needed, however, to protect women (and men) who are victims of abuse.  Ratification of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), which Obama pledged, would be a good start. And, while the criminal justice system is surely not the only (and sometimes not the best) way to deal with cases of abuse, when victims elect to utilize it is imperative that police afford them the full protection of the law and are held accountable when they do not.

Laura Finley, Ph.D., teaches in the Barry University Department of Sociology & Criminology and is syndicated by PeaceVoice.

 
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